Library Title IX Resources

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (P.L. 92-318, June 23, 1972; appears generally as 20 USCS §§ 1681 et seq.) was the first comprehensive federal law to prohibit sex discrimination against students and employees of educational institutions. The law requires educational institutions to maintain policies, practices and programs that do not discriminate against anyone based on sex. Males and females are expected to receive fair and equal treatment in all arenas of public schooling: recruitment, admissions, educational programs and activities, course offerings and access, counseling, financial aid, employment assistance, facilities and housing, health and insurance benefits, marital and parental status, scholarships, sexual harassment, and athletics.

This page is intended to help you locate information about Title IX using a variety of resources.

Finding Materials in Library Catalogs

To find materials in the Cheng Library Online Catalog or in the WorldCat Union Catalog, try searching with the term "Title IX." You should combine this term with other relevant words to obtain focused results. Materials about Title IX in Library catalogs are often classified with the following subject terms:

  • College sports -- Women.
  • College athletes -- Women.
  • Educational equalization -- United States.
  • Sex discrimination in education -- United States.
  • Sex discrimination in sports -- United States.
  • Sports for women -- United States.
  • Women athletes -- Government policy -- United States.

Therefore, search statements like "Title IX and sex discrimination" will usually return focused results. Try various combinations to refine your search.

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Finding Government Documents

Federal Government Documents

Documents published by the U.S. government since 1976 can be found in the GPO (Government Printing Office Monthly Catalog) database available from the Library's web page, or from the Catalog of U.S. Government Publications database available through GPO Access on the web.

New Jersey State Government Documents

Documents published by the State of New Jersey and its various agencies can be found in the New Jersey State Library Online Catalog. Comining your search term (e.g., "Title IX") with "New Jersey" usually provides the most focused results. The Cheng Library is a New Jersey Documents Depository Library and has many state government documents in its collection. Check the Library's catalog for these materials.

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Finding Articles in Journals, Magazines, Newspapers, Law Reviews and other Periodicals

The following databases all contain useful articles about Title IX. Some of the databases concentrate on specialized subject areas or materials, so select the ones most appropriate for your search topic.

Academic Search Premier
General index to a wide variety of periodicals, including research journals and popular magazines. Much of the material is available in full text in the database.
Chronicle of Higher Education
Written for college and university faculty members and administrators, the weekly Chronicle provides some of the best and most thorough coverage issues that affect colleges and universities in the United States. The online version includes a full-text searchable archive back to September 1989. To proceed to the Chronicle from this link, select the "Publisher's Site (new window)" link on the opening screen. PLEASE NOTE that access to the Chronicle online requires a Username and Password.
Contemporary Women's Issues
Multidisciplinary, full-text database that brings together relevant content from mainstream periodicals, "gray" literature, and the alternative press, with a focus on the critical issues and events that influence women's lives.
CQ Researcher
The CQ Researcher, published weekly by Congressional Quarterly, provides thorough examinations of individual topics (one per week) and sources for more information. The online version includes a full-text archive of the CQ Researcher back to October 1991.
The most important database for education research, ERIC includes citations and abstracts for both journal articles and a wide variety of "gray literature," much of it is available online. Covers gender equity issues at the secondary school level in addition to higher education. Try a search using the phrase "Title IX Education Amendments 1972" and other terms (e.g., "athletics") related to your topic.
Lexis-Nexis Academic
This database includes full-text documents from over 5,600 news, business, legal, medical, and reference publications. Its "News" section allows your to search newspapers, transcripts from the broadcast media, wire services, college and university papers, and other sources. Its "Legal Research" section allows you to search for articles in law reviews. Updated daily.
Physical Education Index
The most important index to periodical literature in the field of physical education. Contains citations for articles from peer-reviewed journals, report literature, conference proceedings, trade magazines, patents, articles from the popular press, and many other publications. Currently includes over 226,000 records from 1970 to the present, updated monthly.

Town Hall: Conservative News and Information
This website provides a convenient portal to a variety of self-identified conservative columnists and organizations. Some of the most critical assessments of Title IX can be found here.

General index to a wide variety of periodicals, including research journals and popular magazines. Much of the material is available in full text in the database.
Worldwide Political Science Abstracts
Worldwide Political Science Abstracts provides citations, abstracts, and indexing of the international journal literature in political science and its complementary fields, including international relations, law, and public policy. Over 440,000 records cover articles from more than 1,400 periodical titles, with coverage from 1975 to the present. Please note that online access to this database is restricted to currently enrolled students, faculty and staff.

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Finding Title IX in the Federal Code, in the Code of Federal Regulations, and in Federal and State Case Law

Title IX in the U.S. Code
You can read the text of Title IX in the U.S. Code online by using the United States Code web site. On the Search form, request Title 20 and Chapter 38.

You can also view the text in Lexis-Nexis Academic. From the opening screen, select "Legal Research," then select the "Federal Code" link. Using the "Guided Search" screen, type 20 uscs sec 168* and search by Cite.

Code of Federal Regulations
The Office of Civil Rights for the Department of Education has primary responsibility for the administration of Title IX, and the Department of Education's regulations can be found in Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The regulation governing athletics is published as 34 CFR 106.41 and can be viewed in Lexis-Nexis Academic. From the opening screen, select "Legal Research," then select the "Federal Regulationse" link. Use the "Guided Search" screen, select "Code of Federal Regulations" in the Source field, then type 34 CFR 106.41 and search by Cite.

Federal and State Case Law
Lexis-Nexis Academic contains the full text of judicial decisions from all federal court levels and state high court and appellate decisions for every state. From the opening screen, select "Legal Research," then select either "Federal Case Law" or "State Case Law" to search for cases. You can search using keywords, the names of parties in lawsuits, or case citations.

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Government Agencies Responsible For Title IX Enforcement

Secretary's Commission on Opportunity in Athletics
On June 27, 2002, Secretary of Education Rod Paige announced the formation of a blue-ribbon panel of sports professionals and educators to examine ways to strengthen enforcement and expand opportunities to ensure fairness for all college athletes. The Commission collected input from interested parties throughout the country, issued a final report on February 28, 2003, and ceased operation on March 15, 2003. An online archive of the Commission's work remains on the Education Department's web site.

U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights
The Office for Civil Rights has primary responsibility for enforcing Title IX's provisions with respect to recipients of federal education funds. The Office's web page includes a "Reading Room" link containing many useful documents and reports detailing the history of Title IX enforcement.
U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division
The Jsutice Department's Civil Rights Division plays a secondary role in education-related civil rights enforcement but is still a useful source of information. The Office's web page includes a "Title IX Legal Manual" designed to be an abstract of general principles and issues for use by various federal agencies charged with enforcing Title IX.

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Research and Advocacy Organizations

American Association of University Women
The American Association of University Women is a national organization that promotes education and equity for all women and girls. It pursues these goals through a range of public policy efforts, programs, and diversity initiatives. Its web site includes a number of information resources about Title IX (see the "Research" and "Take Action" sections).
Feminist Majority Foundation: Title IX Online Resources
A concise, annotated link directory of Title IX Resources assembled by the Feminist Majority Foundation, which "utilizes research and action to empower women economically, socially, and politically.".
Independent Women's Forum
The mission of the Independent Women's Forum "is to affirm women's participation in and contributions to a free, self-governing society." For several years it argued that Title IX has "become a crusade to impose unfair quotas in schools" and its web site's Gender Equity and Title IX includes a number of studies, policy analyses, editorials, panel discussions and other documents that advance this view.
National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS)
NAGWS' mission is to develop and deliver equitable and quality sport opportunities for all girls and women through relevant research, advocacy, leadership development, educational strategies, and programming in a manner that promotes social justice and change. Its web site includes several Title IX information resources.
National Association of Collegiate Women Athletic Administrators
The National Association of Collegiate Women Athletics Administrators, founded in 1979, is a membership organization dedicated to providing educational programs, professional and personal development opportunities, information exchange, and support services to enhance college athletics and to promote the growth, leadership, and success of women as athletics administrators, professional staff, coaches, and student-athletes.
National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education (NCWGE)
NCWGE is a nonprofit organization of more than 50 organizations dedicated to improving educational opportunities for girls and women. Its mission is to provide leadership in and advocate for the development of national education policies that benefit all women and girls. Its web site provides information on the coalition; current activities; updates on relevant federal education legislation; information resources; and NCWGE publications.
National Collegiate Athletic Association: Title IX Resource Center
The stated purpose of the National Collegiate Athletic Association "is to govern competition in a fair, safe, equitable and sportsmanlike manner, and to integrate intercollegiate athletics into higher education so that the educational experience of the student-athlete is paramount." Its Title IX Resource Center pages contain links to fact sheets, the NCAA's own gender equity report, an official NCAA manual for achieving gender equity, and other information.
National Women's Law Center
The National Women's Law Center is an advocacy organization founded in 1972 to protect and advance the progress of women and girls at work, in school, and in virtually every aspect of their lives. The Center uses a variety of tools to maximize its impact in bringing women's concerns to public policy makers, advocates and the public alike, including public policy research, monitoring and analysis; litigation, advocacy and coalition-building; and public education. Its web site includes several information resources on Title IX (check the "Education" section).
National Wrestling Coaches Association
In January, 2002, the National Wrestling Coaches Association and the College Sports Council filed a complaint against the U.S. Department of Education in pursuit of eliminating what it calls the "gender quota" from the current interpretation of Title IX and replacing it with a different regulation. Its site includes several documents detailing its efforts to enact Title IX reform.
Women's Educational Equity Act (WEEA) Equity Resource Center
The Women's Educational Equity Act (WEEA) Equity Resource Center was established to bring support and resources to the many exceptional efforts that are improving the education of girls and women in the United States. Its work is funded through a contract from the WEEA Program Office at the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. Its site includes a selection of Title IX resources.
Women's Sports Foundation
Founded in 1974 by Billie Jean King, the Women's Sports Foundation is a charitable educational organization dedicated to ensuring equal access to participation and leadership opportunities for all girls and women in sports and fitness. Its online Title IX Library includes a variety of publications that represent the Foundation's positions on legal issues.

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Web Resources (Bibliographies, Online Guides and Documents)

Gender Equity in Sports (University of Iowa)
Gender Equity in Sports is designed to serve as a resource for any individual investigating the state of affairs in interscholastic or intercollegiate sport. The content and data are primarily based on an ongoing project being maintained by Dr. Mary C. Curtis and Dr. Christine H.B. Grant at The University of Iowa (Women's Intercollegiate Athletics). Items in this web guide were collected from newspaper articles, the Women's Sports Foundation, and personal references.