ASA Citation Style

According to the American Sociological Review and the ASA Style Guide, 2nd ed.
Prepared by James H. Mahon, Revised January 24, 2006

References follow the text in a section headed "REFERENCES" All references used in the text must be listed in the reference section and vice versa. Publication information for each must be complete and correct.

List the references in alphabetical order by authors' last names; include first names and middle initials for all authors when available. If there are two or more entries by the same author(s), list them in order of the year of publication - see the entries below for the U.S. Bureau of the Census. If the cited material is unpublished but has been accepted for publication, use "Forthcoming" in place of the date and give the journal name or publisher. For dissertations and unpublished papers, cite the date and location the paper was presented or is available. If no date is available, use "N.d." in place of the date.

If two or more works are by the same author(s) within the same year, list them in alphabetical order by title and distinguish them by adding the letters a, b. c, etc., to the year (or to "Forthcoming") - see the Fitzpatrick and Goodman entries below. For multiple authorship, only the name of the first author is inverted (e.g., "Jones, Arthur B., Colin D. Smith, and James Petersen") - see the Roethlisberger entry below. List all authors; using "et al." in the reference section is not acceptable.

Titles of books, journals, and journal articles should use headline-style capitalization, which capitalizes the first and last words and all other words except articles, prepositions, and coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for). Titles of books and journals should be italicized; titles of articles should be enclosed in quotes. Citations that refer to web sites should include author's name, date of posting/last revision, title of document, full URL, and date of access in parenthesis. For more detailed information on citing web sites, see Merriam Webster. 1998. Manual for Writers and Editors. Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster, Inc.

A few examples follow. See recent issues of ASR for further examples. For extended discussions on how to identify sources in a scholarly work, one or more of the following would be helpful: (1) ASA Style Guide, 2nd ed.; (2) Pp. 88-98 in Johnson, William A. Jr. et al. 2006 The Sociology Student Writers Manual, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Prentice Hall; (3) Chapters 15 and 16 in The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press; or (4) Chapters 9 through 12 in Turabian, Kate L. 1996. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press; or (5) Gibaldi, Joseph, ed. 1998. MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 2nd ed. New York: Modern Language Association.

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· Books:
one author

Girden, Ellen R. 1996. Evaluating Research Articles from Start to Finish. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

two authors

Bendix, Reinhard and Guenther Roth. 1980. Scholarship and Partisanship: Essays on Max Weber. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

three authors

Roethlisbeger, F.J., William J. Dickson, and Harold Wright. 1939. Management and the Worker: An Account of a Research Program Conducted by the Western Electric Company, Hawthorne Works, Chicago. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

edited book

Douglas, Jack D., ed. 1970. Deviance and Respectability: The Social Construction of Moral Meanings. New York: Basic.

article from a collection

Millman, Marcia. 1992. "Kids at Fat Camp." Pp. 347-356 in Social Interaction: Readings in Sociology, edited by Candace Clark and Howard Robboy. New York: St. Martin's.

republished works

Bernard, Claude. [1865] 1957. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Translated by H. C. Greene. New York: Dover.

two books by same author in same year

Fitzpatrick, Joseph P. 1987a. One Church, Many Cultures: The Challenge of Diversity. Kansas City, MO: Sheed and Ward.

 

--------. 1987b. Puerto Rican Americans: The Meaning of Migration to the Mainland. 2nd.ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

volumes of books

U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1960. Characteristics of Population. Vol.1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

editions of a book

Noss, David S. 1999. A History of the World's Religions. 10th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

· Journal Articles:

Conger. Rand D. Forthcoming. "The Effects of Positive Feedback on Direction and Amount of Verbalization in a Social Setting." Sociological Perspectives.

 

Goodman, Leo A. 1947a. "The Analysis of Systems of Qualitative Variables When Some of the Variables Are Unobservable. Part I-A Modified Latent Structure Approach." American Journal of Sociology 79:1179-1259.

 

--------. 1947b. "Exploratory Latent Structure Analysis Using Both Identifiable and Unidentifiable Models." Biometrika 61:215-31.

· Collections:

Clausen, John A. 1972. "The Life Course of Individuals." Pp. 457-514 in Aging and Society, vol. 3, A Sociology of Age Stratification, edited by M.W. Riley, M. Johnson, and A. Foner. New York: Russell Sage.

 

Satripson, Robert J. 1992. "Family Management and Child Development Insights from Social Disorganization Theory." Pp 63 93 in Advances in Criminology Theory, vol. 3, Facts Frameworks, and Forecasts

· Citing a Secondary Source:

Berger, Peter L. 1963. "Charisma and Religious Innovation: The Social Location of Israelite Prophecy." American Sociological Review 28:940-949, cited in Graeme Lang and Lars Ragvald. 1998. "Spirit-Writing and the Development of Chinese Cults." Sociology of Religion 59:313-328.

· Government Documents:

U.S. Congress. 1950. House Subcommittee on the Study of Monopoly Power of the Committee on the Judiciary. Study of Monopoly Power: Hearing. 81st Cong. 2d sess., pp. 788-91.

 

U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1960. Characteristics of Population. Vol.1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

· Dissertations:

Charles, Maria. 1990. "Occupational Sex Segregation: A Log-Linear Analysis of Patterns in 25 Industrial Countries." Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sociology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

· Newspapers and General Circulation Magazines:

Maske, Monica. 1986. "McCarrick Appoints Key Officials in Major Archdiocese Reshuffling." Newark Star Ledger, 16 November, sec.1, p. 1.

 

Newark Star Ledger. 1995. "St. Ann's Italian Festival to Celebrate 85th Annual." 20 July, p. 63.

 

Karen, Robert. 1990 "Becoming Attached." Atlantic, February, pp. 35-70.

 

U.S. News and World Report. 1980. "Currents in the News." 22 February, p. 20.

· On-Line Sources:
information posted on a web site

Dalhousie, Duncan. 1996. "Scottish Clans" On-Line." 19 May. Retrieved October 3, 1997. gopher://dept.english.upenn.edu:70//11Scots/Clan.txt.

 

Walker, John. n.a. "Resources for Learning French." Retrieved August 12, 1997. http://www.fourmilab.ch/francais/lfrench.html.

from commercial databases

Graham, Lorie. 1998. "The Past Never Vanishes: A Contextual Critique of the Existing Indian Family Doctrine." American Indian Law Review 23:1. Retrieved May 25, 1999. Available: LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe, Law Reviews.

· Machine Readable Data Files:

American Institute of Public Opinion. 1976. Gallup Public Opinion Poll #965 [MRDF]. Princeton, NJ: American Institute of Public Opinion [producer]. New Haven, CT: Roper Public Opinion Research Center, Yale University [distributor].

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The items used above as examples would appear as follows, arranged in alphabetical order by author, at the end of a research report or journal article:

 

REFERENCES

American Institute of Public Opinion. 1976. Gallup Public Opinion Poll #965 [MRDF]. Princeton, NJ: American Institute of Public Opinion [producer]. New Haven, CT: Roper Public Opinion Research Center, Yale University [distributor].

Bendix, Reinhard and Guenther Roth. 1980. Scholarship and Partisanship: Essays on Max Weber. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Berger, Berger, Peter L. 1963. "Charisma and Religious Innovation: The Social Location of Israelite Prophecy." American Sociological Review 28:940-949, cited in Graeme Lang and Lars Ragvald. 1998. "Spirit-Writing and the Development of Chinese Cults." Sociology of Religion 59(4):313-328.

Bernard, Claude. [1865] 1957. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Translated by H. C. Greene. New York: Dover.

Charles, Maria. 1990. "Occupational Sex Segregation: A Log-Linear Analysis of Patterns in 25 Industrial Countries." Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sociology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Clausen, John A. 1972. "The Life Course of Individuals." Pp. 457-514 in Aging and Society, vol. 3, A Sociology of Age Stratification, edited by M.W. Riley, M. Johnson, and A. Foner. New York: Russell Sage.

Conger. Rand D. Forthcoming. "The Effects of Positive Feedback on Direction and Amount of Verbalization in a Social Setting." Sociological Perspectives.

Dalhousie, Duncan. 1996. "Scottish Clans" On-Line." 19 May. gopher://dept.english.upenn.edu:70//11Scots/Clan.txt (3 October 1997).

Douglas, Jack D., ed. 1970. Deviance and Respectability: The Social Construction of Moral Meanings. New York: Basic.

Fitzpatrick, Joseph P. 1987a. One Church, Many Cultures: The Challenge of Diversity. Kansas City, MO: Sheed and Ward.

--------. 1987b. Puerto Rican Americans: The Meaning of Migration to the Mainland. 2nd.ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Girden, Ellen R. 1996. Evaluating Research Articles from Start to Finish. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Goodman, Leo A. 1947a. "The Analysis of Systems of Qualitative Variables When Some of the Variables Are Unobservable. Part I-A Modified Latent Structure Approach." American Journal of Sociology 79:1179-1259.

--------. 1947b. "Exploratory Latent Structure Analysis Using Both Identifiable and Unidentifiable Models." Biometrika 61:215-31.

Johnson, William A., Richard Rettig, Gregory M. Scott, and Stephen M. Garrison. 2006. The Sociology Student Writer's Manual. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Prentice Hall.

Karen, Robert. 1990 "Becoming Attached." Atlantic, February, pp. 35-70.

Lang, Graeme and Lars Ragvald. 1998. "Spirit-Writing and the Development of Chinese Cults." Sociology of Religion 59(4):313-328.

Maske, Monica. 1986. "McCarrick Appoints Key Officials in Major Archdiocese Reshuffling." Newark Star Ledger, 16 November, sec.1, p. 1.

Millman, Marcia. 1992. "Kids at Fat Camp." Pp. 347-356 in Social Interaction: Readings in Sociology, edited by Candace Clark and Howard Robboy. New York: St. Martin's.

Newark Star Ledger. 1995. "St. Ann's Italian Festival to Celebrate 85th Annual." 20 July, p. 63.

Noss, David S. 1999. A History of the World's Religions. 10th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Roethlisbeger, F.J., William J. Dickson, and Harold Wright. 1939. Management and the Worker: An Account of a Research Program Conducted by the Western Electric Company, Hawthorne Works, Chicago. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Satripson, Robert J. 1992. "Family Management and Child Development Insights from Social Disorganization Theory." Pp 63 93 in Advances in Criminology Theory, vol. 3, Facts Frameworks, and Forecasts, edited by J. McCord. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1960. Characteristics of Population. Vol.1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. Congress. 1950. House Subcommittee on the Study of Monopoly Power of the Committee on the Judiciary. Study of Monopoly Power: Hearing. 81st Cong. 2d sess., pp. 788-91.

U.S. News and World Report. 1980. "Currents in the News." 22 February, p. 20.

Walker, John. n.a. "Resources for Learning French." http://www.fourmilab.ch/francais/lfrench.html (12 August 1997).

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References in the text cite the last name of the author and year of publication. Include page numbers whenever your text quotes directly from a work or refers to specific passages in the cited work Cite only those works needed to provide evidence for assertions and to guide readers to important sources on your topic. Identify subsequent citations of the same source in the same way as the first. For more details on author-date style references in the text, see pp. 80-88 in Johnson, William A. Jr. et al. 2006 The Sociology Student Writers Manual, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Prentice Hall. Examples follow:

  • If author's name is in the text, follow it with the year in parentheses -- ". . . Duncan (1959)"; if author's name is not in the text, enclose the last name and year in parentheses -- ". . . (Gouldner 1963)." There is no punctuation (no period, no comma) between author's name and the date of publication.
  • Pagination follows the year of publication after a colon -- ". . . (Ramirez and Weiss l979:239 - 40)."
  • Give both last names for joint authors -- ". . .. (Martin and Bailey 1988)."
  • For works with three authors, list all last names on the first citation in the text; thereafter use "et al.". . . (Carr, Smith, and Jones 1962)"; and later, ". . . (Carr et al. 1962)." For works with more than three authors, use "et al." throughout.
  • For institutional authorship, supply minimum identification from the complete citation - ". . . (U.S. Bureau of the Census 1963:117)."
  • Separate a series of references with semicolon -- ". . . (Burgess 1968; Marwell et al. 1971)."
  • For unpublished materials, use "forthcoming" to indicate material scheduled for publication. For dissertations and unpublished papers, cite the date. If no date, use "n.d." in place of the date -- ". . . Smith (forthcoming) and Jones (n.d.)."
  • For On-Line sources, cite authorship and date posted/revised - " . . . (Dalhousie 1996)
  • For machine-readable data files, cite authorship and date -- ". . . (Institute for Survey Research 1976)."

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